The No-Nonsense Guide to Market Segmentation (With Tips and Examples)

Att marknadsföra sig mot fel segment kan kännas som att leta efter fel träd, eller mer specifikt, att leta efter tiotusentals fel träd.

Nearly everybody in sales has, at one point or another, heard someone reasoning that simply adding more people to the funnel will improve their sales numbers while preserving their conversion rate. If you’re a sales rep making 30 calls a day, you might reasonably extrapolate that making 60 calls a day would double your closed deals. Unfortunately, it’s not that straightforward.

Building a sales process can be complicated. What one audience might find valuable might just be noise for another.

That’s where effective customer segmentation can bring in some serious value for your business. Different demographics respond differently to marketing campaigns, and finding the right target market for your products or services can help you tailor your marketing strategies to be the most impactful they can be.

This guide to marketing segmentation will help you find your target audience and choose the best market segmentation strategies.

Vad är marknadssegmentering?

Market segmentation is the process of qualifying companies (or people) into groups that respond similarly to specific marketing strategies. This is the first critical step in creating a marketing and sales process tailored to differentiate your business in the market and resonate across multiple demographics.

Market segmentation divides customers into segments based on shared characteristics, behaviors, or other attributes so you can create marketing strategies that appeal to entire groups. Your marketing segmentation strategy will be mainly influenced by what your product is and which types of companies are already buying it.

The history of market segmentation

Uttrycket "marknadssegmentering" myntades först av Wendell R. Smith i hans publikation Product Differentiation and Market Segmentation as Alternative Marketing Strategies från 1956. Smith skrev att modern marknadsföring tilltalar selektiva snarare än primära köpmotiv.

Med andra ord ställer konsumenterna aktivt produkter mot varandra i stället för att bara köpa en produkt för att tillfredsställa ett omedelbart behov. Denna insikt var startskottet för den moderna marknadssegmentering som vi tillämpar idag.

Before 1956, there wasn’t a huge market variety, and general stores tended to carry only one or two brands’ versions of the same product. As time went on, more and more emerging brands began offering similar products and thus needed to differentiate themselves with branding and by targeting different markets.

Det räckte inte att bara tillverka ketchup, man var tvungen att identifiera sitt varumärke som Amerikas ketchup, barnens ketchup eller lyxig ketchup.

ad for cigarettes from the 1970s
Denna Virginia Slims-reklam från 1970-talet marknadsför cigaretter mot kvinnor. Tack och lov har vi kommit en lång väg (baby) från hemsk reklam.

Vilka är fördelarna med marknadssegmentering?

Market segmentation provides several benefits to small teams and enterprises alike, including:

  • Bang for your buck: With tailor-made, demographic-specific messages and advertising, companies can more effectively communicate with their audiences, begin boosting their conversion rates, and actually spend less on broad advertising.
  • Better conversion rate: The more information you have about your various audiences, the more specificity you can add to your outreach, which will help your prospects convert more easily.
  • Customer retention: By marketing towards customers who have already gone through their own buyer’s journey, segmentation makes it easier to keep them engaged and pitch them with occasional upgrades. And with the segment data you’ve captured, you know how to talk to them.
  • Expanding your efforts: Segmentation can be a great way to pursue new markets that have something in common with your current markets.  

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The 10 most common types of market segmentation

Market segmentation helps savvy marketers categorize their target customers based on shared characteristics to keep their efforts focused and effective. Below are the 10 most common types of market segmentation: 

1. Demographic segmentation

Demografisk marknadssegmentering är den vanligaste formen av marknadssegmentering och innebär att du kategoriserar din marknad baserat på ålder, kön, inkomst, yrke, ras, religion, utbildning, plats, familjesituation etc.

Exempel på demografisk segmentering:

  • Switch to the cartoon channel and check out those commercials. Do Nerf guns and neon-colored slime appeal to someone your age? Yeah us too, bad example.
  • Commercials for vacation homes may target people across ages, genders, locations, and other demographics, but they all appeal to customers with disposable income who are interested in travel.

2. Psychographic segmentation

More specific characteristics are categorized under the umbrella of psychographic segmentation. Less tangible than demographic segmentation, this classification method includes details like lifestyle, personality, beliefs, values, and social class.

Denna utvärdering är viktig eftersom två individer kan ha identisk demografisk information men fatta helt olika köpbeslut och därmed kräva olika marknadsföring.

Exempel på psykografisk segmentering:

  • Reklam för hälsa och välbefinnande kanske inte når fram till någon som föredrar att lägga sina pengar på TV-spel och energidrycker, även om de arbetar inom samma bransch och bor i samma hyreshus.
  • Advertisements for large social gatherings (events, clubs, bars) might not appeal to introverts who would much rather snuggle up with a book than be surrounded by other people.

3. Behavioral segmentation

I grunden handlar beteendesegmentering om att kategorisera potentiella kunder baserat på deras handlingar, vanligtvis inom din marknadsföringstratt. Till exempel kan prospekt som besökt en landningssida för ett kommande event dra nytta av att få en personlig inbjudan.

Att segmentera din marknad baserat på beteenden görs vanligtvis av marknadsförare i deras programvara för automatiserad marknadsföring, men alla företag med en e-postlista har redan utfört beteendesegmentering genom att helt enkelt spåra potentiella kunder som har registrerat sig för att få e-post.

Exempel på beteendesegmentering:

  • Sending emails to website visitors who have left items in their cart. “But wait…come back!”
  • En retargeting-kampanj som endast visar annonser för personer som tidigare har köpt en vara.

4. Geographic segmentation

Geographic market segmentation takes into account prospects’ locations to help determine marketing strategies. Although SaaS sales are relatively unaffected, a salesperson of gigantic coats knows to avoid pitching to Arizona residents.

people wearing gigantic coats

Variabler och exempel på geografisk segmentering:

  • Klimat: Badklädesmärken bör inte rikta sig till Alaskas invånare i januari.
  • Cultural preferences (based on location): For obvious reasons, the McDonald’s in Germany sells beer.
  • Population type: A bicycle company may segment its audience differently depending on the population type—rural (mountain bikes; thicker tires; more durable), urban (road bikes; thin tires; lightweight), etc.
  • Täthet: En gigantisk galleria kan behöva en hög densitet av fottrafik för att trivas.

5. Price segmentation

Price segmentation alters the price of similar products and services sold to different consumer groups. If you ever forced your kids to pretend to be under a certain age to qualify for the “kids eat free” special, then you understand the power and utility of price segmentation.

Prissegmentering kan dock vara mycket mer detaljerad. Den kan användas för att identifiera kunder som kan vara villiga att betala mer för en viss produkt eller tjänst som de uppfattar som mer värdefull.

Om prissegmenteringen görs på rätt sätt kan du få ut maximalt med intäkter för varje transaktion.

Exempel på prissegmentering:

  • Bred: Seniorrabatt, veteranrabatt, kuponger etc.
  • Granular: Computer processors are priced differently when sold to a company as a part (like inside an iMac) than when sold to a consumer as a standalone product.
  • Even more granular: A marketing consultancy may base its prices entirely on the value it can generate for each of its client’s unique situations.

6. Firmographic segmentation

Instead of categorizing consumers based on age, location, income, etc, firmographic segmentation categorizes companies based on industry, annual revenue, job function, company size, location, status, performance, etc.

För B2B-marknadsförare är firmografisk segmentering en icke förhandlingsbar del av en högpresterande marknadsföringsstrategi.

Precis som de demografiska segmenteringsvariablerna kan hjälpa dig att skapa en köparpersona på konsumentnivå, kan firmografisk segmentering hjälpa dig att utveckla en köparpersona på företagsnivå.

Exempel på företagssegmentering:

  • Running different ads for different industries—real estate, finance, legal firms, etc.
  • A B2B sales team only targeting companies with revenues over $100m.

7. Generational segmentation

Generationssegmentering är nästan jämförbar med variabeln "ålder" i demografisk segmentering. Generationssegmentering går dock längre än ålder genom att ta hänsyn till skillnader i preferenser, vanor, livsstilar och attityder hos en viss generation.

It’s self-evident that the generations are vastly different. Someone born in the 1960s will likely have experienced a different culture than someone born in the 2000s.

Exempel på generationssegmentering

  • Använda fler memes på Facebook för att nå en större andel av millenniegenerationen.
  • Ändra ditt schema för publicering av innehåll till morgnar för att nå en större andel av Baby Boomers.

8. Life stage segmentation

Livsfassegmentering är processen att dela upp din marknad baserat på målgruppens livsfas. En person som är gift och har 5 barn kanske reagerar bra på en känslomässig annons om cabrioleter under sin medelålderskris.

Exempel på segmentering av livsstadier

  • Ads about life insurance may not appeal to sophomores in college, but they may appeal to someone who just started a family.
  • Den som just börjat arbeta för första gången kan vara mer intresserad av en ny lägenhet än den som är pensionär.

9. Seasonal segmentation

Seasonal segmentation targets people based on their purchasing habits during certain periods of the year. It can include actual seasons (spring, summer, fall, winter), events (Coachella, Super Bowl), and holidays (Christmas, Mother’s Day).

Exempel på säsongssegmentering

  • A local you-pick berry farm may want to target their ads based on the fruit in season.
  • A flower shop that specializes in same-day delivery may want to ramp up its ad spend around Mother’s Day targeting forgetful children.

10. Technographic segmentation

Much like firmographic market segmentation, technographic segmentation only applies to B2B audiences. It’s used to target companies based on the types of technology they’re using. Whether it’s a customer relationship management (CRM) platform, a website CMS, or a niche-specific software tool, utilizing technographic segmentation can help enhance sales and marketing efforts.

Exempel på teknisk segmentering

  • A company that develops WordPress plugins would have no business targeting companies that use a different CMS, like Wix.
  • It would make sense for a SaaS company to target businesses using an app it just integrated with.

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Strategier för marknadssegmentering (och deras för- och nackdelar)

Every market segmentation strategy is different but most of them follow one of two fundamental outlines:

1. Concentration strategy

Concentration strategy is when a company determines that its efforts are best focused solely on a single market segment. This strategy is particularly great for small, growing businesses that have demonstrated a viable use case within a specific market. Focusing on one segment will allow the company to invest more time, energy, and resources into one specific market, which minimizes advertising spend and potentially mitigates wasting efforts across multiple segments.

Koncentrationsstrategi är som att lägga alla kort på bordet - om det inte fungerar kan det sluta illa. Om marknadssegmentet inte har undersökts ordentligt och visar sig vara ett fiasko kan alla dina marknadsföringsinsatser vara bortkastade. Se till att göra en noggrann planering och genomföra grundliga marknadstester innan du bestämmer dig för att satsa på ett enda marknadssegment.

  • Fördelar: Hög konverteringsprocent, repeterbara marknadsföringsmetoder, mindre marknadsföringskostnader
  • Nackdelar: "Allt eller inget", tillväxtpotentialen är begränsad till segmentets storlek

2. Multi-segment strategy

Multi-segment marketing, or differentiated marketing, is when a company’s marketing strategies are designed to advertise one product to more than one market segment.

Även om multisegmentmarknadsföring verkar vara "säkrare" än koncentrationsstrategi, är det en mycket större belastning på ett företags marknadsföringskostnader, eftersom det krävs helt olika kampanjer för varje marknadssegment.

Men om ett visst segment är extremt mottagligt och konverterar bra är det lätt att skräddarsy din strategi för att marknadsföra mer direkt till det segmentet.

  • Pros: Safer, appeals to more consumers, diverse marketing, high growth potential
  • Nackdelar: Lägre konverteringsprocent, större marknadsföringskostnader

Hur du gör din egen marknadssegmentering i faser

Ready to complete market segmentation for your company? Here are three phases to follow during the process that will help you ensure you’re analyzing your markets effectively:

Fas 1: Insamling av data

First things first, it’s time to gather data so that you can use it to form your market segments. There are many ways to go about it—some people like to buy pre-made lead lists and others prefer to do their own research

Two helpful methods of researching prospects are webforms and surveys. You can place high-quality data behind webforms that requires site visitors to submit their name, email address, and other information to access the content. Surveys can get specific information from potential buyers in exchange for tangible rewards, like a gift card or special offer.

If you’re doing your own research, you can frame your searches along the following categories:

  • Researching by company size: Size can mean a number of things, but is most often measured by the number of employees, number of customers, or overall sales revenue a company claims. Some companies have greater transparency on their websites, which makes reaching out to the correct person much easier.
  • Researching by industry: It’s unlikely that your product is applicable across all industries, which is why industry segmentation exists. Industry segmentation will help you ensure that you’re not wasting your time by targeting a company with no need for your product.
  • Researching by location: If you’re offering a location-specific product or service, like landscaping services within the local community, your geographic market segmentation is probably pretty airtight: You probably use handy tools like lead maps, and engage in local marketing wherever possible. For other industries, like IT staffing, your reach might be international. Whatever your product, location is a crucial thing to know about a company, because it will help you decide which sales tactics to use and when to send your emails if you’re communicating across time zones, at the least.
  • Researching by needs: This method of segmentation entails qualifying companies based on whether they need your products or services. While this definition is straightforward, the process behind making this determination may not be, depending on what you’re offering. If you sell landscaping services, you can use Google Maps to look up a company’s HQ. If their office is in a tower in New York City, they probably don’t need any landscaping.

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Fas 2: Sortera data i segment

There are many ways to go about sorting data. Most involve expensive analysts, marketers, and lots and lots of time. Although the DIY route is faster, it is no substitute for a comprehensive market segmentation strategy.

Om tid och pengar inte är ett hinder kan du göra din egen marknadssegmentering genom att sammanställa dina data i en enda källa och köra filter på den för att manuellt gruppera dina potentiella kunder och företag efter segment.

Kom ihåg att fråga dig själv följande:

  • Är detta segment mätbart?
  • Är detta segment tillräckligt stort för att generera vinst?
  • Är detta segment stabilt, och kommer det inte att försvinna efter en kort tid?
  • Är detta segment nåbart med mina marknadsföringsstrategier?
  • Är detta segment homogent, och kommer de att reagera på samma sätt på mina marknadsföringsstrategier?

Fas 3: Koppla in dina marknadsföringskanaler

Now that your segments have been firmly established, it’s time to connect the dots and breathe life into your marketing. This means establishing a plan for each of your marketing tools and channels and coming up with real ways to reach your segments with them.

You’ll be attributing different marketing and sales tactics to each stage of your pipeline and determining what sticks. The good news is that your market segments are clearly defined and you’ll be able to speak to them clearly.

Den verkliga utmaningen är att kontinuerligt förbättra dina insatser med försök och misstag för att få bästa möjliga konverteringsfrekvens.

Det finns ett bra, gammaldags sätt att kartlägga detta snabbt och enkelt:

  • Draw your pipeline stages horizontally across a sheet of paper.
  • Above each pipeline stage, jot your marketing channels, like Linkedin, emails, or webinars, with blank space in between them.
  • Below each marketing channel, write exactly how you will use this tool at this pipeline stage, like “email prospects a link to a recorded webinar.”

Repeat this exercise for each market segment to help establish a concise and repeatable process for marketing to your various audiences. You can fully flesh out your segmented marketing strategy by configuring your sales software and email automation around the outline you’ve created, and then make tweaks as needed.

To this end, some CRMs have reporting and performance tracking as well as custom reporting to help you figure out what’s working and what needs to change.

Frequently asked questions about market segmentation

Still have questions about market segmentation? Check out the FAQs below for answers to some common questions:

What are some common challenges faced when implementing market segmentation? 

Here are a few of the challenges you may encounter when implementing your market segmentation strategy:

  • Creating segments that are too broad: Your product or service may appeal to several different market segments, but trying to appeal to too many can lead to ineffective marketing and high ad spending.
  • Creating segments that are too narrow: The opposite problem can also arise. Small segments might be difficult to quantify and distract from other segments with greater buying power.
  • Not being flexible: Just because a particular segment is currently buying from you doesn’t mean they always will. Be willing to reevaluate your market segments over time to maximize your marketing spending and revenue.

What are the key factors to consider when selecting a target market segment? 

Five key factors to consider when selecting market segments for your marketing strategies are:

  • Whether the segment is measurable
  • Whether the segment is large enough to generate a profit for your business
  • If the segment is stable and won’t vanish after a short time
  • If the segment is reachable by your marketing strategies
  • Whether the segment is homogenous and will respond similarly to your marketing strategies

How can you effectively redefine your target market?

If you’ve determined that your target market no longer fits, you can always identify new markets. Here are a few tips for doing so: 

  • Identify trends and patterns: Do companies that make a certain amount of annual revenue seem to be shying away from your offerings? If you want to reach those customers, identify any patterns in which products or services they choose instead and strategize for how to provide the value they’re looking for.
  • Listen to customer feedback: Your current (or former) customers are valuable sources of feedback. Consider what they’re saying about your product or service and whether you’re meeting their needs. You may be able to identify new opportunities.
  • Diversify your marketing channels: Using multiple channels to reach your target market can be a highly effective way to increase exposure for your brand. Consider diving into new channels like content marketing, email marketing, SEO, and online advertising to drive engagement with your target audience.

Additional resources:

Marknadssegmentering i en nutshell

Now you’ve got your demographics clearly segmented, your strategy figured out, and your sales processes mapped tightly to your market segments.

Därför bör du ha en tydlig förståelse för hur du pratar med dina potentiella kunder och hur du differentierar dina uppsökande insatser baserat på marknadssegmentet.

De utmaningar som ligger framför oss handlar om att ständigt anpassa marknadsföringen - testa budskapen, taktiken och mäta målgruppernas respons.

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